Two New Publications on Band-tailed Pigeons

The first two papers on disease research in band-tailed pigeons have been published. The papers are the result of a collaboration between the UC Davis Wildlife Health Center and the CDFW Wildlife Investigations Lab.

In the first article, Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons, Yvette Girard, Krysta Rogers, and co-authors, describe a newly discovered parasite found in band-tailed pigeons. The second article, Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population, discusses rates of infection of Trichomonas parasites in band-tailed pigeons and sympatric avian species.

Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon.

Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon. Note the characteristic white crescent and iridescent greenish-bronze patch of feathers on the hindneck and black-band on the tail. Photo by Krysta Rogers, 2013.

Click here to read the recent UC Davis news release.

Click here to read about the new parasite.

Click here to read about Trichomonas spp. infection rates.

If you have any questions about the project, or would like to report sick or dead band-tailed pigeons, contact Krysta Rogers at 916-358-1662.

Photo Album of Large Mammal Captures – Spring 2014

This spring the Wildlife Investigations Laboratory assisted with 8 large mammal captures throughout California.  Wildlife capture projects are conducted to help biologists and veterinarians assess the health of these herds through biological sampling,  to place GPS collars on the animals to monitor movement and help study habitat use, and for translocating animals.  A total of 207 animals were captured including 132 deer, 21 pronghorn antelope, 36 elk and 18 bighorn sheep.  Below is a small collection of photos from our month in the field.

Large mammal project locations.  Spring 2014

Large mammal project locations. Spring 2014

Bandaging elk antlers to prevent injury

Bandaging elk antlers to prevent injury

Stabilizing elk for transport to trailer for relocation to another site.

Stabilizing elk for transport to trailer for relocation to another site. San Luis Refuge, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Merced County.

Pronghorn antelope

Pronghorn antelope, Modoc County. Photo by Richard Shinn.

Helicopter bringing deer into basecamp for health monitoring

Helicopter bringing deer into base camp for health monitoring, Inyo County

Translocation and release of Sierra Nevada bighorn to augment herd in Olancha

Translocation and release of Sierra Nevada bighorn to augment herd in Olancha, Inyo County.

Deer release after GPS collaring and health monitoring - Scott Valley, Siskiyou County.

Deer release after GPS collaring and health monitoring – Scott Valley, Siskiyou County. Photo by Eric Haney

Throwback Thursday: On Wildlife Management

By Tom Batter, WIL Scientific Aid

They say you can’t know where you’re going if you don’t know where you came from.  Our latest installment of Throwback Thursday takes a look at an article from the November 1956 issue of Outdoor California discussing what wildlife management is, and why it is needed (and a bonus for any poetry fans out there).

By today’s standards, we would substitute ‘game’ for ‘wildlife’ in the article title as the author, Jack R. Beer, takes a very game-centric approach in his discussion.  Which makes sense considering his job title was ‘Game Manager.’  Regardless, the main points in this article still apply to wildlife management today with the understanding that the principles expand to encompass all wildlife, not just those species which are harvested.

Nov56

The Tule Elk, A California Comeback Story

By Tom Batter, WIL Scientific Aid

The elk (Cervus canadensis) to this day remains an icon of what once was the unsettled, untamed American frontier.  There are four extant subspecies of elk in North America.  The Manitoban elk (C.c. manitobensis) is exclusive to Canada, but the other three subspecies can be found in California.  They are the Roosevelt elk (C.c. roosevelti) of the north coast rainforests, Rocky Mountain elk (C.c. nelsoni) of the northeastern counties, and the tule elk (C.c. nannodes) native to the Central Valley.

Elk distribution in California.

Elk distribution in California.  Photo courtesy of the DFW Elk Management Program.

Tule elk look similar to other elk in general size, shape, and color (albeit tules wear a slightly lighter brown).  Generally speaking, however, tule elk are overcome in maximum size by both Rocky Mountain elk and the great Roosevelt elk.  A good sized Roosevelt bull, the largest of the subspecies, can reach 1,000 pounds or more.  Tule elk are the smallest subspecies; in fact, at one time they were colloquially referred to as ‘dwarf elk’.  A large bull tule elk will tip the scales at about 700-800 pounds (hardly a ‘dwarf’ by any means), yet under ideal conditions they may grow larger.

The tule elk, the smallest of the elk subspecies, are best adapted to open country and semi-desert conditions among elk races (McCullough 1969).  Image source: CDFW

Tule elk once roamed the San Jaoquin Valley in ample numbers.  Early settlers found tule elk roaming the foothills of the Sierra Nevada west to the central Pacific coast and from the headstream of the Sacramento River south to the Tehachapi Mountains.  Much like the affliction of the American bison on the Great Plains, tule elk became a casualty of human settlement — particularly after the Gold Rush.

Unregulated market hunting, competition with livestock, and the introduction of nonnative plant species all contributed to the decline of tule elk.  What was more devastating, however, was the conversion of elk habitat to agricultural land.  When settlers turned to the plow not only did it remove food and cover resources for elk, it also brought about direct conflict between elk and farmers.  Increasing crop and fence damage fueled campaigns for the removal of the tule elk by those individuals whose livelihoods were affected.  By the time elk hunting was banned by the state legislature in 1873, it was unknown if any tule elk even remained.

Luckily tule elk did remain, thanks in part to the protection provided by California cattle baron Henry Miller.  In 1874 a pair of Tule elk was discovered on the Miller and Lux Ranch by a local game warden at Button Willow.  Miller set aside 600 acres (near present day Tule Elk State Natural Reserve) to give the elk a chance to rebound.  In 1914, the elk had experienced such growth in numbers that Miller requested the California Fish & Game Commission work to relocate the elk from his ranch.

In order to relieve Miller from elk damage to his property and crops (reportedly estimated at $5,000 per year), the U.S. Biological Survey attempted to relocate tule elk by lassoing them from horseback and transporting them to new areas, with little success.  From 1914 to 1934 the California Academy of Science took on tule elk relocation activities 21 times over the next several decades.  These attempts were not very successful either, although they did contribute to establishing the herds at Owens Valley, Cache Creek, and the Tupman Reserve.

From 1971 through 1989 complete species protection was granted to tule elk.  State and Federal laws were passed to prohibit hunting of tule elk until a population of at least 2,000 was reached.  Habitat improvement programs combined with an aggressive reintroduction campaign by the Department of Fish & Game and other state and federal agencies yielded a significant increase in California’s tule elk population.

Tule elk of the San Luis National Wildlife Refugre, circa 1970s.  Image source: BLM 3rd Annual Report to Congress on The Tule Elk.

Tule elk of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge, cca the 1970s. Image source: BLM 3rd Annual Report to Congress on The Tule Elk, March 1, 1979.

Today there are twenty-two tule elk herds in the Golden State, totaling around 4,200 individuals with the population trending upward.

Due to competing land use practices, it is not easy for tule elk to freely move between sub-populations; this requires the Department of Fish & Wildlife to take action in order to meet statewide management objectives.To help maintain healthy herds, every so often CDFW is tasked with capturing and relocating healthy elk to different established

Dr. Annette Roug (right, kneeling) leads a team of biologists as they attempt to weigh a cow elk.  Photo credit: Joe and Nancy Rodrguez.

Dr. Annette Roug (front right) leads a team of biologists as they attempt to weigh a cow elk. Photo credit: Joe and Nancy Rodrguez.

herds.  Removing elk from one herd and placing them in another helps to simulate the natural movement of individuals between herds which increases genetic diversity, an important function of a healthy population.

The Wildlife Investigations Lab took part in one such capture and relocation effort at the end of March.  A total of 36 elk were captured via helicopter from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge near Los Banos.  Once elk were netted from the helicopter, they were processed by capture teams.  Capture teams took measurements, collected hair, blood, and other biological data to assess the health of the herd before they moved on to their new locations.

The animals were successfully released to join their new herds.  A portion of the captured animals were also radio-collared to collect post-release movement information.

An elk sets eyes on joining its new herd.  Photo courtesy of Joe and Nancy Rodriguez.

An elk sets sights on joining its new herd. Photo courtesy of Joe and Nancy Rodriguez.

To read the CDFW news release from this successful capture, click here.

For more information on the CDFW Elk Program, click here.

Interested in more tule elk biology?  Click here.

 

 

Throwback Thursday: An Unusual Sea Otter Study

By Tom Batter, WIL Scientific Aid

Happy Throwback Thursday loyal readers!  Today we highlight an article describing an experimental approach by DFG to help curb losses to the abalone industry.  The experiment called for DFG to partner with commercial fisherman to supplement feed to the sea otter populations off the coasts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo counties.  The goal in mind was to make the sea otter’s southern migration unnecessary to help boost abalone production.  Quite an interesting approach that, to this author’s knowledge, was ineffective.  This excerpted page originally appeared in the 1967 November-December issue of Outdoor California.

NovDec67

Throwback Thursday: Marking Deer to Trace Migration Routes

By Tom Batter, WIL Scientific Aid

WIL Readers, get ready for some nostalgia!  We are catching up to social media trends and introducing a new feature to the blog: Throwback Thursday! We would like to share a glimpse of what wildlife management was like in the days of yore through articles, images, and reports from the past.

Today we bring you an article from Outdoor California’s June 1955 issue.  And yes, that’s Melvin R. Clover of collapsible Clover trap fame!

June55

Tracking movement patterns of deer and other large mammals is still relevant to contemporary wildlife management. However, modern techniques have evolved along with modern technology.  Nowadays a study animal is more likely to be ear-tagged or fastened with a radio or GPS collar for research.  You’ll be hard pressed to find any bucks or does dyed for Mardi Gras festivities anymore!

The plight of the Amargosa vole highlighted in recent LA Times article

A Los Angeles Times article released today highlights three Mojave species vulnerable to increasing drought and the long term impacts of climate change.

The CDFW WIL is part of the inter-agency-academia team helping to recover Amargosa vole populations.

An ear tagged amargosa Vole is ready for release.

An ear tagged Amargosa vole is ready for release.  Each tag has a unique number so that biologists can track  the survival of  individual voles. Photo by CDFW.

Click here to read the article and watch a video of our UC Davis partner, Professor Janet Foley, explaining the plight of the vole and demonstrating how we work with voles.

To see our previous post about Amargosa voles click here.