Last September, a gray fox was found dead at a residence in Inverness in Marin County with no signs of trauma. Since the residence was adjacent to the Point Reyes National Seashore, the National Park Service investigated. The gray fox was sent to their lab in Colorado and found to have unexplained hemorrhaging in the brain and lungs with no signs of trauma. These are classic signs of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning, so the liver was sent to be analyzed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory in Davis. The liver contained a toxic combination of three different second generation anticoagulant rodenticides. These rodenticides – brodifacoum, bromadiolone, and difethialone – are only legally used by pest control professionals for rodent control in and around man-made structures. After eating these baits, rodents remain mobile for several days and can be eaten by wildlife or pets.
Gray fox at the Point Reyes National Seashore. Photo: NPS/Bernot
Members of the public cannot obtain these materials over the counter. Due to their harmful impacts to wildlife second generation anticoagulant rodenticides became restricted use materials in California in July 2014.
To protect local wildlife, the National Park Service and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife urge safer rodent control such as exclusion and trapping. It is also recommended that residents ask any pest control company that they employ not to use these materials on their property. The two agencies are teaming up to get the word out locally to prevent another incident near Point Reyes National Seashore. However, this is not a unique situation. Monitoring in California has found that the majority of predators and scavengers, such as foxes, bobcats, mountain lions, coyotes, and raptors, are still being exposed to these materials.
Be a good neighbor to your local wildlife and help spread the word!
To learn more, please visit the CDFW webpage:
Captively bred Amargosa voles. Photo credit: Nora Allen
Since 2014, CDFW-WIL has partnered with UC Davis in order to create and maintain a breeding colony of Amargosa voles essential to the recovery of the species. If interested in learning more about the history and progress of the colony, please read more here. Below is a video showing a few of the vole pups bred in captivity (Credit: Janet Foley).
An Inyo county black bear found dead during our fall ungulate captures was likely poisoned by the pesticide carbofuran. The adult black bear was spotted by our helicopter crew lying dead across irrigation piping on a top of a knoll in the John Muir Wilderness. The situation was very odd so the helicopter crew collected to carcass and flew it into base camp for a post mortem examination by the Department wildlife veterinarian. While examining the dead bear some of the biologists noted that flies which contacted the bear’s saliva or diarrhea quickly died. In light of this finding, and the likely association with what appeared to be an illegal marijuana grow, we decided to shuttle the bear carcass straight to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) laboratory for a full post mortem examination including necropsy and toxicological testing.
The initial necropsy findings were unremarkable. Toxicological testing detected carbofuran in stomach contents. No other carbamate or organophosphate pesticides were detected. In addition to the toxicology findings, microscopic examinations of tissues showed non-suppurative inflammation in the brain. Inflammation of this sort is typically caused by a virus, but rabies and canine distemper viruses were not detected. A cause for the encephalitis has not yet been determined and we are screening tissues for a possible gammaherpes virus that has been identified in other bears with similar brain inflammation. The significance of this finding in this bear is unknown, but was unlikely to be a contributing factor in the bear’s death. The detection of carbofuran and no other pesticides in conjunction with a decreased brain cholinesterase activity, a hallmark of organophosphate or carbamate pesticide intoxication, strongly supports carbofuran intoxication as the cause of death.
Carbofuran causes death by extreme over stimulation of the nervous system, which often ultimately leads to respiratory failure. The extreme toxicity of this material is illustrated by the fact that about approximately 64 rats or 12,000 sparrows would be killed by a single aspirin-sized tablet of the technical material. Carbofuran is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides ever produced, and as such all legal uses of carbofuran have been banned in the United States since 2009. That’s not to say that carbofuran itself is banned in the U.S., but that there are no legal uses of carbofuran in the U.S., so for all intents and purposes it has been banned. Prior to its discontinued use in the U.S., it was responsible for losses of thousands of birds, mammals, and fish. In recent years, there have been numerous cases of illegally imported carbofuran being found on trespass marijuana grows in California and regular reports of associated wildlife losses. Some of these losses appear intentional. Carbofuran is still sold in other parts of the world, including some countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Prepared by Brandon Munk and Stella McMillin
In the Spring of 2016, CDFW (WIL and Region 6), UC Davis, BLM, USFWS, and many volunteers partnered to restore a key habitat patch utilized by the Amargosa vole. This habitat patch used to sustain the highest density of Amargosa voles in the world, but in 2010 it began to deteriorate due to changes in hydrology. The Amargosa vole team worked diligently to restore the water supply and reinvigorate vegetation growth at the marsh. Learn more about the Amargosa vole project.
Each year, the WIL oversees the rehabilitation and release of orphaned bear cubs throughout the state. With the help of non-profit wildlife rehabilitation facilities, cubs are cared for until they reach an age at which they can survive on their own in the wild.
A winter release, sometimes called a soft release, requires creating artificial dens for the cubs, encouraging them to go into hibernation. Spring releases do not require dens. Instead, the animals are released on site and hazing methods are used upon release to discourage habituation to human presence.
To learn more about the rehab and release process, check out this short video.
Researchers from CDFW – WIL, UC Davis, and USGS have been working in partnership to study how drought affects the endangered Amargosa vole. This work includes assessing the range-wide distribution of the vole and the factors which influence their distribution, continued captive breeding of the species for protection against extinction, and habitat restoration. If you would like to learn more about the project please follow the link to the CDFW drought webpage.
Recent work from Amanda Poulsen (UC Davis) in partnership with researchers at CDFW-WIL has been published in the Journal of Wildlife Diseases. This work examined the prevalence and potential impacts of toxoplasmosis in the wild Amargosa vole population. To access the paper abstract, click here.
Full reference: Amanda Poulsen, Heather Fritz, Deana L. Clifford, Patricia Conrad, Austin Roy, Elle Glueckert, and Janet Foley (2016) Prevalence and Potential Impact of Toxoplasma gondii on the Endangered Amargosa Vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis), California, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases In-Press.